Saturday, 31 May 2014

Can software suffer? The complicated ethics of brain emulation

Scientists may be years away from successfully emulating a human or animal brain for research purposes, but the significant – and perhaps unexpected – ethical challenges such work presents have been outlined in a thought-provoking article in the Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. "Whole brain emulation (WBE)," writes Anders Sandberg of Oxford's Future of Humanity Institute, "is an approach to achieve software intelligence by copying the functional structure of biological nervous systems into software." "The basic idea is to take a particular brain, scan its structure in detail at some resolution, construct a software model of the physiology that is so faithful to the original that, when run on appropriate hardware, it will have an internal causal structure that is essentially the same as the original brain. All relevant functions on some level of description are present, and higher level functions supervene from these." It is this similarity to a 'real' brain that triggers the substantial ethical concerns which Sandberg addresses in detail, including: How do we know if emulations are accurate enough to be worthwhile scientific tools? Can they suffer and if so, how can we guarantee them a good 'quality of life'? When and how is it appropriate to 'kill' or 'revive' an emulation? What is the legal, moral and personal identity status of multiple, parallel emulations? What happens if we 'kill' one version but leave others 'running'? With many of these questions unresolved – or currently unresolvable – Sandberg concludes that there is a pressing need for 'computational modellers to safeguard against software suffering' as the field progresses. But human emulations may present other, bigger problems. Sandberg notes that "the preliminary work that has been done on the economics and social impact of brain emulation suggest they could be a massively disruptive force." He discusses the reasons why some scholars take this view as well as whether or not emulations could contribute directly to 'the risk that humanity and all Earth-derived life go extinct'; perhaps inevitably, there is mention of 'zombies'. From the likely impact of initial experiments on the simplest animals to the risks and ethical implications of emulations for all of humanity, this fascinating paper gives an insight into just some of the dilemmas facing brain emulation researchers – who, just like those involved in stem-cell therapy and cloning before them – are working at the cutting edge of science.

Improving cash flow using credit management

Albany Software focuses on developing award-winning software to transform financial processes and is the market leader in electronic payment solutions. Albany makes financial transfers and subsequent procedures as easy, cost-effective and secure as possible for your business’ Finance department. From Direct Debit management, through to sending invoices and remittances electronically, as well as processing Bacs payments, Albany has a solution to fit. for more information on this ebook follow this link http://www.cimaglobal.com/documents/importeddocuments/cid_improving_cashflow_using_credit_mgm_apr09.pdf.pdf

Statistics that help win a match (w/ Video)

A tracking system for athletes, currently used by the Montreux Volley Masters, provides real-time statistics during the game on players and the ball. Developed by Playfulvision, an EPFL start-up, the device will soon be available for various team sports in a version for GoPro cameras. At the Montreux Volley Masters 2014, which is taking place through Sunday in Montreux, statistics on movement, the speed of the players and the ball – and even the strike angle – can be viewed online. This is a valuable tool for improving performance. "Obtaining this data during the competition allows us to better assess key moments in the match," explains Georges-André Carrel, coach of the volleyball team at the University of Lausanne (LUC). "For example, we can see which player receives the ball, what he does with it and at what angle, and thereby organize the defense." The overlay of some of these statistics on the images during televisual retransmissions augments the match with new information. Developed by the start-up Playfulvision, this new tool is about to be used in all international volleyball competitions. A contract was signed with the International Federation (FIVB) in April. Coaches and television stations can select which statistics they need and how they would like them to be presented: shape, graphics, curves or otherwise. This rookie tool will be responsible for programming these applications, and data will arrive directly on the selected screen. The statistical analysis service will also soon be available in a version developed for the GoPro camera, which makes it readilyavailable to other sports and teams at all levels.Other sports monitoring systems exist, for example in international soccer competitions and basketball. But this one has several advantages. The Playfulvision system is fully automated, which makes it both easier to install and cheaper. In its professional version six cameras placed around the field or court are connected to a computer. This innovation is based on three algorithms developed at the Computer Vision Laboratory. Players can always be located on the screen via an overlay with the color of their jersey and number. The challenge was to find how to achieve this recognition continuously, even when in groups and therefore hidden behind others. The first algorithm detects players in each instant, independent of the preceding or following. It "cuts" the field into small squares (up to10 cm2), simultaneously subtracting the background from any view, and infers the probability of a player's presence in each of the small squares. The second and third algorithms connect the results obtained in each instant to extract the individual trajectories. All of them use global optimization methods that have helped build this very robust system to reliably track people in real time.

Wednesday, 28 May 2014

Google engineers open gates to Quantum Computing Playground

Does the idea of playing about with a quantum computer please you? If so, you can check out one fresh alternative route, thanks to a group of Google engineers. How about a GPU-accelerated quantum computer? You can take advantage of something called the Quantum Computing Playground which has launched as a browser-based WebGL Chrome Experiment. It features a GPU-accelerated quantum computer with a simple IDE interface. It has its own scripting language, with debugging and 3D quantum state visualization features. Quantum Computing Playground can simulate quantum registers up to 22 qubits, run Grover's and Shor's algorithms, and has quantum gates built into the scripting language itself. Commenting, ExtremeTech said the programs are written in a language called QScript,-which "looks a lot like any other simple Bash-like scripting language." The 'Playground' web page provides some background to quantum computers and how they are unique. "A classic computer processes bits, which at any given time can be in one of two states: 0 or 1. Quantum computers use qubits, which can exist in any superposition of states 0 and 1, and are represented by a complex number. When N qubits are in superposition, a combination of 2^N states is created. A classic computer can only hold one of these states at a time, while quantum computers can perform meaningful operations on superpositions of states. This basic property of quantum computers opens a way to multiple interesting algorithms." The comments expressed by technology sites describing the new Quantum Computing Playground mentioned the lack of any detailed tutorial. They note that one needs some sort of programming experience to dig in and enjoy. Said I Programmer, for example: "One of the problems with using it is that it doesn't provide a course in quantum computing or quantum principles and to make much sense of it you need to know something about quantum mechanics and have a rough idea if what quantum gates are all about." A step by step demo is provided along with some very useful information on the Help page but the need for previous exposure to the principles of quantum computing would be helpful. ExtremeTech said, "The Help/About page has a few details about the inner workings of the simulator and QScript, but you'll still need a pretty solid grounding in computer science or quantum computer theory." All the same, the Quantum Computing Playground needs little coaxing to draw the interest of those who are genuinely curious about working with quantum algorithms. "If you have ever wanted to try your hand at quantum algorithms, there is no longer an excuse," I Programmer said Thursday. After all, according to the Playground site, quantum computers that perform operations on sequences of qubits are not available commercially. "The proof-of-concepts for capabilities of quantum computing have been demonstrated in multiple laboratories around the world, so there is a chance that quantum computers will become one day everyday's reality. For now, you can experience the technology of tomorrow today, inside our Playground."

Measuring fine dust concentration via smartphone

Source: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Summary: Big cities in the smog: Photos from Beijing and, more recently, Paris clearly illustrate the extent of fine dust pollution. But what about our direct environment? What is the pollution concentration near our favorite jogging route? Scientists are developing a sensor that can be connected easily to smartphones. In the future, users are to take part in drawing up a pollution map via participatory sensing. The precision of the map will be the higher, the more people will take part. Big cities in the smog: Photos from Beijing and, more recently, Paris clearly illustrate the extent of fine dust pollution. But what about our direct environment? What is the pollution concentration near our favorite jogging route? Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are developing a sensor that can be connected easily to smartphones. In the future, users are to take part in drawing up a pollution map via participatory sensing. The precision of the map will be the higher, the more people will take part. The principle of fine dust measurements using a smartphone corresponds to that of simple optical sensors. "Instead of the conventional infrared LED in the sensor, the flashlight of the smartphone emits light into the measurement area. This light is scattered by the possibly existing dust or smoke. The camera serves as a receptor and takes a picture representing the measurement result. The brightness of the pixels can then be converted into the dust concentration," computer scientist Matthias Budde explains. He has developed the system as a member of the research group TECO of KIT's Chair for Pervasive Computing. The computer scientists have carried out comparative measurements to prove that the principle works. The smartphone sensors are not yet as precise as specialized instruments. However, their costs are much lower. "Detectors at the official measurement stations operated by the Baden-Württemberg State Agency for the Environment, Measurement, and Nature Conservation are very precise, but also very large, very expensive, and static. In Karlsruhe, for instance, only two measurement stations have been established," Budde says. He plans to enhance accuracy by a high measurement density. Measurements of many, closely adjacent sensors may be combined to results of reduced inaccuracy. Thus, measurement errors could be reduced. Due to their close vicinity, the sensors might also be calibrated against each other. Budde thinks that a potential application scenario is joint measurement or participatory sensing: Interested citizens measure data at various places in their city and share them. These data may then be used to draw up a fine dust pollution map for the respective city in real time. The sensor is planned to be attached to the smartphone by means of a magnet, for instance. Adaptation of electronics will not be required. Users who want to join participatory sensing will have to download the corresponding app. At the measurement point desired, the sensor is attached to the cell phone and the users take a photo or a video for measurement. The images can be evaluated locally or transmitted to a computer system that combines these data with other measurements and sends them back. Then, the fine dust concentration is displayed by the phone. Presently, the smartphone sensor can measure concentrations of about one microgram per cubic meter. This is sufficient for detecting coarse dust and smoke, but not for typical fine dust concentrations in the microgram range. The scientists now plan to further increase the sensitivity of the sensors. This can be achieved among other means by ideally bundling the flashlight in the sensor by using hemispherical lenses. This principle is realized in a recently produced, far smaller second prototype. In addition, the evaluation algorithms and the smartphones themselves will be further developed. In the future, the devices will no longer compress the photos automatically, but also be able to supply raw data. This promises to increase the accuracy of the measurement results even further. Budde reckons that a smartphone sensor able to detect typical fine dust will have been developed in the course of next year. The doctoral thesis of the computer scientist, however, does not only deal with the further development of the sensor and the possibilities of generating a map from the measurement points, but also with the question of how citizens can be motivated to participate. "Many people are intrinsically interested in such offers, because they see a benefit for themselves and others," Budde says. For those, who like games, a gamification system might be feasible. Users might score points for the collection of data or measurements at certain locations. Also, data protection is an important aspect of participatory sensing. "Users have to be sure that the operator protects their data from being tracked or stolen and uses them for nothing but the pollution map." An option is data aggregation, by means of which data are combined and bundled such that they can no longer be traced back to an individual person. But the central idea of participatory sensing is the joint benefit resulting from an increased information quality -- which increases with the of measurements.

How a plilot used thoughts to control airplanes

Source: Technische Universitaet Muenchen Summary: Pilots of the future could be able to control their aircraft by merely thinking commands. Scientists have now demonstrated the feasibility of flying via brain control -- with astonishing accuracy. The pilot is wearing a white cap with myriad attached cables. His gaze is concentrated on the runway ahead of him. All of a sudden the control stick starts to move, as if by magic. The airplane banks and then approaches straight on towards the runway. The position of the plane is corrected time and again until the landing gear gently touches down. During the entire maneuver the pilot touches neither pedals nor controls. This is not a scene from a science fiction movie, but rather the rendition of a test at the Institute for Flight System Dynamics of the Technische Universität München (TUM). Scientists working for Professor Florian Holzapfel are researching ways in which brain controlled flight might work in the EU-funded project "Brainflight." "A long-term vision of the project is to make flying accessible to more people," explains aerospace engineer Tim Fricke, who heads the project at TUM. "With brain control, flying, in itself, could become easier. This would reduce the work load of pilots and thereby increase safety. In addition, pilots would have more freedom of movement to manage other manual tasks in the cockpit." Surprising accuracy The scientists have logged their first breakthrough: They succeeded in demonstrating that brain-controlled flight is indeed possible -- with amazing precision. Seven subjects took part in the flight simulator tests. They had varying levels of flight experience, including one person without any practical cockpit experience whatsoever. The accuracy with which the test subjects stayed on course by merely thinking commands would have sufficed, in part, to fulfill the requirements of a flying license test. "One of the subjects was able to follow eight out of ten target headings with a deviation of only 10 degrees," reports Fricke. Several of the subjects also managed the landing approach under poor visibility. One test pilot even landed within only few meters of the centerline. The TU München scientists are now focusing in particular on the question of how the requirements for the control system and flight dynamics need to be altered to accommodate the new control method. Normally, pilots feel resistance in steering and must exert significant force when the loads induced on the aircraft become too large. This feedback is missing when using brain control. The researchers are thus looking for alternative methods of feedback to signal when the envelope is pushed too hard, for example. Electrical potentials are converted into control commands In order for humans and machines to communicate, brain waves of the pilots are measured using electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes connected to a cap. An algorithm developed by scientists from the Department of Biological Psychology and Neuroergonomics at the Berlin Institute of Technology allows the program to decipher electrical potentials and convert them into useful control commands. Only the very clearly defined electrical brain impulses required for control are recognized by the brain-computer interface. "This is pure signal processing," emphasizes Fricke. Mind reading is not possible. The researchers will present their results end of September at the "Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress." Story

28 Ways To Make Money Around You

This reveals that there are a lot of opportunities out there who is ready to grab them. I have the personal belief that anybody that can read and write and also has access to the internet and a phone has no business with poverty . HOUSEHOLD MACHINES OR DEVICE REPAIR SERVICES To do this business, you’ll need to contact local repair shops in your community and tell them you will list them free of charge for a commission on all business you send them. For those that agree to your terms, find out the type of repair work the specialize in, example cooker, refrigerator, washing machine, TV sets etc. People with urgent or emergency problems will call you and you can refer them to the proper repair shops. The shop owner gets the extra business; you receive a commission. But make sure you list only experts and not quacks and fraudster. Don’t also list those who won’t be able to deliver prompt service. If pick up and delivery service is required, this should be added to the customer’s bill by the shop owner. 2. PRODUCT SELLING BY PHONE This is another lucrative business. I am specifically into this right now. Right now, many firms, stores, factories, industries, etc. need phone sales people to help sell items and goods such as books, subscription, encyclopedias, cloths, etc. Most pay able average commissions, some pay on a ‘presale’ basis; others pay a flat fee for making appointments for their sales men to call on prospective customers. Contact local firms that may be interested in using your services. 3. AGENCY FOR COLLECTION OF DEBT Almost every business has outstanding debts. If you can convince debtors by phone that they should pay their bills, you can receive nice commission. Some firms allow as much as 2/5 commissions almost any firm will be interest in your plan, since most will be happy to pay you a fee and receive some payment rather than nothing at all. 4. SERVICES SELLING BY PHONE Although this is similar to 2 above, generally, you offer your service to local firms that sell items that home-owners would be interested in, such as water purification, insurance, decorating services, landscaping etc. Since such service are so technical in nature, you will usually be paid a fee for each appointment you arrange for the salesmen, plus receive a commission on the final sale. 5. RESERVATION SERVICE FOR HOTELS When a large retreat or convention comes to town, it is often difficult for many travelers to find accommodation. Contact hotels and motels ion your area and explain that, when the have more guest than their rooms can accommodate, they should contact you. By negotiating with as many hotels and motels as possible, you send these guest to other available accommodation. Your commissions are collected from those establishments to which you send guests to fill their vacancies. 6. CATERING SERVICES Planning a large banquet or party or wedding ceremony is very much time consuming. Last minute details can be extremely hectic. Most host and or hostesses will welcome expert hands. You can earn two ways by being of assistance. First, familiarize yourself with all service that may be need by such social events. This includes places where you can sent chairs, dinnerware, silver, table decorations, linen, etc. Also, where you can find attendants such as musician, bartenders, waiters, etc. Also source of catered beverages, meals, ice flowers, entertainment, etc. By making a complete list, you will be able to provide a full service without leaving your phone. Collect a flat fee from the party – givers, base on the number of guest. Also collect a commission on all sales from firms or establishments you recommend to help cater for the affairs. 7. WINDOW WASHING SERVICE While it must be done several time a year, many find window washing as a task. They would rather pay people to clean their window. Charge a fee based on the number of window to be washed. Then locate several persons interested in earning extra money by washing windows. Pay your washers a commission for work done and you keep the rest. 8. HOUSE WASHING SERVICE Many home – owners and tenants will welcome help at dry – season time when there is plenty of dust. Charge a flat fee for the amount of work that must be done. Make arrangements with establishments that provide workers for cleaning carpets, painting, washing walls, etc. and collect a commission from all those you send extra business. 9. ESTATE SERVICES By finding homes for tenants, you perform a valuable service for both landlords and tenants. Advertise that you have listing available for rooms, house, flats, land, etc. You can either charge a one – time fee finding accommodation or work on a commission. To get a list of available houses, contact property developers, estate agencies, guest houses etc. Also watch “for rents” classified ads. In some instances, you will also be able to get a commission from the property owner or landlord for suitable tenants that you locate. 10. ERRAND SERVICE Another helpful idea for busy working people, including home makers. First, you will need a list of those available to run this errands. They could have cars, vans, trucks. Although this is necessary, it is not compulsory. This could aid in errands such as picking up and delivering goods, services and information. Contact students for these chores by placing signs in notice board in schools. They would be happy for such part – time work. Pay them on a day’s work basis charge customer a fee for time involved. 11. HANDY MEN SERVICES Contact firms, business and industrial, who are available for difficult and more strenous jobs such as grass – cutting, gutter debris removal, small carpenter jobs preparing forms for planting, cleaning basements, painting etc. Collect commissions from those you recommend to do these jobs for your customer. 12. ASK FOR FUNDS FOR CHARITIES There are some worthwhile charities that need help in obtaining donations. Contact churches and such local organizations and offer your services for a commission on all such “Promises” you obtain. 13. ASK FOR FUNDS FOR POLITICAL GROUPS These is very good for politically ambitious people. Political candidates are always looking for fund – raiser. Contact local political organizations and / or candidate and explain that you will help raise money on a commission basis. But be wise on choosing those you raise money for. 14. TRAVEL ARRANGEMENT SERVICES The ,job of a travel agency is to provide assistance by making travel arrangements for individuals, couples, families and tours. Duties require making to and from travel reservations with ships, trains, airlines, buses etc. as well as accommodation. In addition to receiving substancial commissions, travel agencies also receive worthwhile benefits in the form of discount travel fares, reduce rate or free accommodation, etc. investigate how other travel agencies operate on order to establish pricing structure for the various services you will offer. 15. ROUND – THE – CLOCK EMERGENCY SERVICE To operate such a service, you will need a list of professional people who can be available around -–the – clock, 7 days a week. This will include locksmiths, plumbers, electricians, doctors, car – towing services, building contractors, TV repairs experts, etc. When calls come in, your job will be to contact the proper emergency help required and send them where needed you receive a commission for all the business you send them. 16. RESERVATION SERVICES This type of service is designed for busy people who want to spend a night in the town but don’t have the time to handle the many details or don’t know their where about. You will be required to make reservations for dinner, concerts, shows etc. charge customers a fee based on the amount of work involved . you can also collect commissions from many of the business you send your customers to. 17. CAR HIRING SERVICES Sometimes, many people who travel long distances don’t like travelling with their car – Negotiate with car hiring firms on your commission. Location those that would want to live cars to the firm and you get your commission per customer sent. 18. HOUSEBOUND PEOPLE Some concerned persons wish to keep informed as to all health and conditions of friends, relative and neighbours. These are generally those people that live alone and may be ill, invalids, disabled etc. You will be required to phone these people at pre-arranged times (usually once or twice a day), to check if all is well. If these is some emergency or no response to your call, you should immediately notify the subscriber. There are those that will pay a good price for such service simply for their own peace of mind. 19. LANDLORD’S VACATION SERVICES While away from home for extended periods, many landlords and landlady will gladly pay someone to water their farms, gardens and flowers. Cut grass, sweep paths, collect newspapers, collect mail, etc. Announce that you provide this services for a small fee on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. 20. “REMIND ME” SERVICE Busy homemakers as well as overworked executives are fearful of forgetting ,important dates such as birthdays, anniversaries, business appointments, etc. By making notes on an ordinary calendar, you can phone several days in advance to remind then of the important occasion. Some subscribers will want to be listed for only 15 or 20 calls a year, while some business will have many more such date dates. Your rates should be based on the number of “remind me” calls for a given period. 21. STUDENTS SERVICE Many Secondary, Polytechnic, College and University Students need part – time jobs after school hours or during holidays and at weekends. Charge these subscribers a monthly or quarterly fee. These are also business and some home owners who need part – time workers. Your duty will be to fill the needs of employers by sending the most qualified students for the jobs. To locate interested students, place signs on notice boards. To be noticed and contacted by prospective employers, you’ll need to run classified ads in local magazine and newspaper, and make phone calls or mail circulars to various businesses. 22. SECRETARIAL SERVICES First, you’ll need to advertise throughout your community for part – time office help such as secretaries, clerks, typists, etc. by placing fliers or handbills on notice boards. Charge a small subscription fee for specified period – usually half a year or for a full year. Then you’ll contact prospective employers by phone or by sending notices announcing your service. When you receive calls for part – time office helpers, it is then a matter of checking your list and finding the qualified workers to fill the part – time job requirements. 23. SEARCE ITEMS SHOPPING SERVICES Many will gladly pay someone else to help them in reach for items or services which are difficult to locate. Some jobs may be impossible, but for those ores that you can fill, you can collect a fee for time involved as well as commissions from merchants in your community that can be of assistance. 24. ORDER TAKING SERVICE In this case, you have a product orr services. You have placed some adverts in the magazine, newspapers, television or radio. Then customers all you through the numbers you placed in your advert to order a specific product or service they have seen advertise. You deliver it to them, either by dropping it in their home or send it by mail. The delivery charge is included in the product price or service charge. 25. SHOPPING SERVICE FOR VERY BUSY PEOPLE Most busy executives do not have the time to do their personal shopping. They need someone to do their buying for them, such as gifts for their wife, family, secretary, business associates, etc. You can provide such a service. First, you’ll be required to spend some time visiting some of the most popular shops in your area. Make a list of items available that will make suitable gifts. Locate stores that provide delivery service. Charge a subscription fee, and / or send a monthly bill for services rendered which is a small percentage of the value of items purchased. 26. PRINTING BUSINESS SERVICE Be a printing broker. A printing broker is, basically, an order taker for one or more commercial printers. You take orders for anything from business cards to circulars to large printing orders. The printer then does the job and sends the order back to you or your customer, depending on your arrangements. You will get the return orders and commissions. Be sure you work with printers who will be able to deliver quality products on time. Printing brokering is an easy way to expand your profits while expending little extra work. 27. MONEY BROKERAGE SERVICE Becoming a money broker is one of the easiest and most rewarding endeavours available. You can start this business on a pat – time basis, and earn large brokerage fee, or open your own office and work full time with absolutely unlimited income potential. To get started, you’ll need stationery, envelop and business cards with your own letter- head. Be sure to include your phone number, when ordering. Also have copies made of your fee agreement. Run some advertisement in your local paper to pull borrowers and lenders. Your job is to bring borrowers and lenders together. Also make sure you have different money sources available such as banks, insurance companies, private investments, professional people, individuals that are well to do, etc. You have to be prepared with proper answers when clients call. 28. CHILD CARE SERVICE This is a matter of providing a baby – sitter at a moments notice. To get a list of available baby – sitters, place small signs o notice boards in your community and keep this list of names handy. Advertise this service in local newspapers to get subscribers. When calls come in, send the nearest baby – sitter. The employer pays for the sitter’s time and generally, the cost of transport.

Saturday, 24 May 2014

How to Jailbreak iPhone 4s / iPad 2 on iOS 5.0.1

Dear Readers, this is my first article on Jail-breaking. So I would try to make it as simple as can. This exploit is about Jailbreak 5.0.1 untethered. and will work on following Devices: Supported devices : iPhone 4 (GSM – CDMA) iPhone 3GS iPod touch 4G iPod touch 3G iPad 1+ Steps: Step 1> First of all connect your iPhone/iPad to your computer and open iTunes then Restore to iOS 5.0.1. Step 2> Next Download Greenpois0n Absinthe from http://cache.greenpois0n.com/dl/absinthe-win-0.4.zip and run in under Administrative privileges. Step 3> Connect your iPhone 4S / iPad 2 with your PC via USB. Step 4> Simply click on "Jailbreak" button follow the steps appear on the greenpois0n screen. Step 5> Once completed, you should see an Absinthe icon on the Home screen. Tap the Absinthe icon, it will open GreenPois0n site, and will then reboot your device. Once it loads again, the Cydia icon will have replaced the Absinthe icon.That is all, now you have jailbreak iPhone 4S / iPad 2 On IOS 5.0.1

Wednesday, 21 May 2014

GOLDEN YOGA POSES AND TIPS TO LOOSE BELLY FAT

Adding inches around the waist and tummy is perhaps the most common source of dissatisfaction with ones appearance after 30. Everybody wants a flat tummy, but nature is always conspiring to make us unshapely. How to achieve it? An integrated approach consists of yoga + stretching exercises + well thought eating plan + a desire for more physical activities. All together this is the most effective formula to achieve well-toned abdomen. You have to be regular in your workout schedule, be aware of the calories in meals plan. Also you must develop the discipline of self denial of some very inviting foods to achieve the desired effect. foe more information on this follow htis link http://www.woyoso.org/support-files/How-To-Beat-Tummy-Fat.pdf thanks

Researchers test distributed computing as defense against cyberattacks on power grids

Imagine a cyberattack that does serious damage to the U.S. power grid. The results wouldn't be pretty The power grid is complicated, divided up into sections that cover everything from a single municipal area (like New York City) to large regions (like the entire state of California). But each of those sections is controlled by a single control center, which monitors the behavior of its piece of the grid to make sure things are operating normally, and makes whatever adjustments are necessary to keep the system running smoothly. But if that control center stops functioning, because of a cyberattack or for any other reason, it is no longer capable of monitoring and maintaining the grid. And that may result in severe instabilities in the system. But a team of researchers from around the U.S. is working to address this and other power grid security concerns as part of the SmartAmerica Challenge, which kicked off in late 2013 to highlight U.S. research in the field of cyberphysical systems. The Smart Energy Cyber-Physical Systems (Smart Energy CPS) team is focused on using sophisticated tools to test various scenarios (and solutions) related to cybersecurity in power grids. The Smart Energy CPS team includes researchers from NC State University, General Electric, Iowa State University, MITRE Corporation, National Instruments, NREL, Penn State, Scitor Corporation, UNC-Chapel Hill (UNC), and the University of Southern California (USC). Because having a single control center for each section of the grid creates a significant vulnerability threat, the NC State and UNC group within the Smart Energy CPS team is pursuing the idea of creating a distributed computing system that would disseminate monitoring and control functions across multiple virtual machines in a cloud computing network that overlays the grid. "The advantage here would be that if one element of the computing system gets compromised, the other virtual machines could step in to protect the system and coordinate their efforts to keep the grid functioning," says Aranya Chakrabortty, an assistant professor of electrical engineering who is leading the project from NC State. "We are working with USC's Information Sciences Institute to test this distributed computing concept. "Our early tests indicate that the distributed computing approach would make the grid more resilient against both physical attacks and cyberattacks," Chakrabortty adds. "Our next step is to scale up the collaboration to get more detailed analyses of different types of attacks. The more we understand about our potential vulnerabilities, the better controllers we'll be able to design to protect our infrastructure." Chakrabortty says that NC State has extensive experimental resources for simulating the behavior of real-world power systems, but adds that "we're power systems experts, not cybercommunication experts. USC has a large testbed for emulating cyberattacks. By integrating our models with theirs, we can carry out more realistic scenarios." The team also includes Yufeng Xin of the Renaissance Computing Institute at UNC.

HIDDEN GOOGLE PAGES

There are also a number of hidden pages on Google that you’ve probably never seen before. Here are just a few of them: Hidden Google Pages Google Moms – A tribute to Google moms for Mother’s Day. Google Dance 2004 , Google Dance 2005 and Google Dance 2006. Yes, it’s hard to believe, but Google has their very own dance. They’re packed with plenty of food, drinks, games, product demos, and a hotspot where you can meet the engineers. Google Holiday Logos – About the only thing that spices up the Google homepage are their cool logos. They’ve dedicated a special page to commemorate all of the holiday logos dating back to 1999. Dilbert and the Google Logo – Check out the first and last Dilbert cartoon on Google. The Future of Google Google always has new ideas brewing in the Google Labs. Everything from Experimental Search to Google Voice Local Search. Find out what they’re up to at http://labs.google.com. Play around with their prototypes and then send in some feedback. Who knows, maybe we’ll see your ideas in the next Google tool.

7 Foods That Are Great For Natural Weight Loss

I healed my body naturally from chronic disease, and in the process lost over 60 pounds, without drugs, deprivation or surgery. Along the way, I discovered that some foods are healing and have the ability to promote health within our bodies, while others can actually cause harm and create weight gain. Here are some of my personal favorite healing foods that can promote health and support natural weight loss. 1. Broth When my body broke down, I was bedridden for weeks. As part of my journey back to health, I felt very fortunate to discover the healing power of broth. Broth can be made easily by cooking chopped organic vegetables in water, until they are super soft. (Bonus points if your vegetables are also local!) Leave six hours or overnight. Then drain the liquid, heat it up, and voila! Your soup broth is ready to drink. Add sea salt and pepper for taste if you want. You can eat the cooked vegetables seasoned with fresh herbs. (You can also add fish, meat or grains to your broth depending on your preferences.) This can be very healing for your body, since it's easy to digest, and also hydrating. 2. Extra virgin coconut oil Many health experts agree that coconut oil is as close to a super food that you can get. High in lauric acid (found naturally in breast milk), extra virgin coconut oil is anti-aging, moisturizing, and healing. It's the only oil that you should ever cook with since it stays stable when heated to high temperatures. 3. Apple cider vinegar Apple cider vinegar is produced through the fermentation of fresh apple cider. It's a rich source of minerals (particularly potassium), vitamins, enzymes and amino acids. Apple cider vinegar is a potent and versatile healing substance and can be applied topically or diluted and taken internally. Always choose good quality apple cider vinegar made from organically grown apples and aged in wooden barrels. It should be pungent and when held up to the light, you should be able to see a cobweb like formation, called the “mother” suspended in the liquid. It's evidence of the vinegar’s naturalness. 4. Cinnamon It may be hard to believe that something that tastes so delicious is also so good for your body. Eating cinnamon has the ability to regulate your blood sugars, which is an important part of the weight loss process. Generously sprinkle cinnamon on your cereal or add it to your smoothies for a flavor injection. 5. Lemons Lemons are naturally detoxifying and have an alkalizing effect on your body. This makes them an ideal weight loss food. Each day upon waking, drink a glass of water with a squeeze of fresh lemon. For a delicious, yet healthy taste, squeeze fresh lemon juice onto your food just before serving. 6. Fresh juices Drinking a selection of fresh fruit and vegetable juices in your day, your body will certainly feel the benefit. Fresh juices are a powerful way to increase your intake of antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and enzymes. You can juice most fruits and vegetables. I try to choose the greenest, water-rich and most alkalizing ones for my own juices, using some (or all!) of the following: spinach or cucumber, celery, pears, apples, ginger and lemon. 7. Fresh greens and vegetables I encourage you to try a wide variety of fresh greens and vegetables to find all the ones you like. Always eat your greens according to the seasons. Some of my favorites are baby spinach, parsley, basil green leaves, broccoli, celery, cucumber, and chard. Healing foods are found everywhere in nature. Always listen to your body and let it guide you. Your body knows best how to heal itself naturally. Eating healing foods will help. I hope that this article inspires you to start eating more fresh, local foods so that you can experience the incredible joy that comes from feeling healthy and losing weight naturally, without diets, deprivation or restrictions.

How to Increase size of your memory card

Increase size of your memory card First I want to say that first time when i heard it i thought "Hey i Know its impossible,So i shouldn't waste my time here" Then suddenly i thought let me give a try, And what happened it was really unbelievable My 1gb memory card was converted into 2gb within moments !!! So if you want to increase your memory card capacity without wasting your money to buy a new one then you must check it out. Here we need a 1gb memory card and "skimedi fix" software (Use Mr google for it.) So lets carry on... For safety make a backup of all data in your memory card. Then do a quick format. Now the main thing starts Open the "skimedi fix" software and choose your drive in which your memory card is located. Then click on "Fix". It will prompt you to format your memory card choose "Yes". Then simply unplug and plug your device. Now Wow !!! It will be converted into 2Gb. If you don't believe then check the capacity of memory card using properties option before and after. Or you can send files to check the space. I was really surprised when i saw the size of "skimedi fix" software , It's just 212kb. I never imagined that such a small software could make a great change. So now you know the secret how to convert your 1gb memory card to 2gb in moments without wasting money for a new one.

Saturday, 17 May 2014

Gardeners, Discover The Easy Way To Save Money and Eat Healthy For Life With Organic Secrets.

Organic Secrets is an amazing fact filled book. Over two years to research and write and now for the first time available as a digital download. You will be able to start reading this "comprehensive manual to everything organic" in less than five minutes. Order Organic Secrets and you'll have the plain, simple facts about growing your own healthy organic produce in your garden. You'll get over 40 chapters that explain in plain and simple terms how to become 'Organic'. Organic Secrets is an amazing fact filled book. Over two years to research and write and now for the first time available as a digital download. You will be able to start reading this "comprehensive manual to everything organic" in less than five minutes. Order Organic Secrets and you'll have the plain, simple facts about growing your own healthy organic produce in your garden. You'll get over 40 chapters that explain in plain and simple terms how to become 'Organic'. for more information follow this link. http://www.ebookstore360.com/product.php?products_id=83&sessionid=ace76183d3fa2619baa62be1c2b726d8

How to Jailbreak iPhone 4s / iPad 2 on iOS 5.0.1

For months, reports have said the next iPhone, or iPhones, will feature significantly larger screens than the one on the iPhone 5s. Now, a new report says they may also feature a significantly higher resolution. The next version of Apple's smartphone, the so-called iPhone 6, may feature a screen resolution of 1,704 by 960 pixels - a 50 percent increase over the iPhone 5s' screen resolution. The higher-resolution screens are being reported by 9to5Mac's Mark Gurman, who is known for often reporting coming Apple products and features before they are officially announced. Gurman cited unnamed sources for his information. Apple is testing the higher resolution to accommodate larger iPhone screen sizes, Gurman reported. Apple declined to comment on the report. The Cupertino-based tech company has been said to be working on versions of the iPhone 6 with 4.7-inch and 5.5-inch screens. Since the iPhone 5 was released in 2012, Apple's flagship device has featured 4-inch screens with 1,136 by 640 pixel resolution. Currently, the iPhone 5s delivers a pixel density of 326. According to Gurman, the 4.7- and 5.5-inch iPhone 6 screens would deliver 416 and 356 pixel densities, respectively. If Apple does deliver iPhone 6 devices with larger screens and a 1,704 by 960 pixel resolution, they will likely be longer and slightly wider than the iPhone 5s, Gurman said in his report. A higher resolution would also mean that developers would have to go back and optimize their apps for the new iPhone 6 screens. Apple is also optimizing its apps for the new resolution, Gurman said. Since launching the iPhone in 2007, Apple has modified the screen of its device twice. The first time came in 2010 when it announced the iPhone 4 and introduced its high-resolution "Retina" display, which had twice as many pixels as the of the iPhone 3GS. Apple modified the iPhone screen again in 2012 when it released the 4-inch iPhone 5. Prior to the iPhone 5, all iPhones had featured 3.5-inch screens.

Computer specialists draw the map of the talk in social networks

The spin-off from the Universitat Jaume I (UJI) Ubik Geospatial Solutions has developed a web service that is able to search and retrieve data from social networks and position them on a map for further study and use. The geolocated analysis of social networks performed by this "Web 2.0 Broker Service" enables to visualize where people are talking about something, thus allowing, for example, that advertising agencies can track, measure and analyze the impact of advertising campaigns, or that agencies such as the European Forest Center detect in real time where and when people are talking about a forest fire. Ubik works with international bodies like the United Nations or the European Union, in developing tools and services based in geospatial technologies, a field that is experiencing exponential growth in recent years."Geoinformation is a valuable tool, for example, for the companies that want to know the geographic distribution of sales, as well as strategies and results of their communication campaigns", explains Joaquín Huerta, researcher at the Department of Computer Languages and Systems at the UJI, noting that each analysis can be adapted to the search on social networks, the time and the environment that each company or organization requires. "Currently, there are many social networks analysis tools, but they are not localized", says the co-founder of Ubik, which is a technology-based company established in order to pay attention to a niche market with great future and to value the knowledge and technology developed over more than 15 years of work by the research group GEOTEC (Geospatial Technologies Research Group) . Knowing who and where people are talking about an advertising campaign on social networks, warning of a forest problem by geolocation data; developing a map of air quality through a collaborative application; improving European territorial cohesion through the comparison of data or developing a sound map playing a battle against noise are just some of the projects developed by this group at the UJI thanks to geolocation technology. As a spin-off, Ubik spreads these advances to society by offering all types of computer-related and geolocation services. The company collaborates with market-leading technology suppliers such as the multinational Esri and works with free software. The Web 2.0 Broker Service tool has already been used in international projects as the one developed in collaboration with the European Forest Center to detect where people are talking about a forest fire. Ana Sanchís, who is also a co-founder of Ubik, explains that they have seen how the social networks map in which people are talking about a specific real-time forest fire matches the perimeter marked by the authorities after fire.Ubik has developed the Smart Campus project on UJI campus. It allows users to access services such as searching by name, area, department or building; walk navigation from anywhere in the town to those spaces, finding caterers, recycling bins or parking spaces; real-time monitoring of electricity, water and gas consumption in buildings or damage or failure complaints, among others. It is a system that can be extrapolated to any type of enclosure that allows, in Sanchis' words, "to integrate different sources of information that use different technologies such as sensors, maps, existing data bases or even the data provided by users through their mobiles. Thus, we get to see information as a whole and can create better management tools and more intuitive displays".Advanced geovisualization techniques also enable to obtain useful information from large amounts of data. This applies, for example, to the Citybench project of the ESPON 2013 programme, promoted by the European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion for promoting policies that foster territorial cohesion and a harmonious development of the different regions of the European Union. This involves collecting and analyzing large amounts of data and comparing socioeconomic indicators. "We collect and combine varied public data ranging from EUROSTAT information to the mention of keywords like 'crisis' in social networks , which allows to know in which areas of Europe network users are speaking over the crisis". The web tool developed allows an initial view of the risks and opportunities of different territories and a benchmarking. The so-called geo-gaming is another service offered by Ubik. It consists of the development of applications based on game mechanics to get more engaged and participatory users. "For example, we have developed an app called 'La batalla del ruido' in which users must record audio clips of different areas to conquer and compete against each other using the noise levels they have collected. At the end we will achieve a noise map collaboratively developed through play", explains Sanchís. "This technology opens up numerous possibilities for a wide variety of studies and projects", she adds.Researchers have extensive experience in developing geolocation technologies to serve the environment. For example, through the project Nueva generación de aplicaciones para la gestión de riesgos medioambientales, funded by the Bancaixa-Caixa Castelló Foundation, they have developed the AirQuality mobile application for visualizing, through maps and other kind of graphics, the data collected by the Valencian Network of Surveillance and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which collects information on air quality in urban and industrial areas of the Valencian Community. The developed programme allows to read, prepare and integrate this information to be available on line, thus giving an added value to this information. Currently, the app is available for Windows Phone 7 and it will support Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8. Another multi-platform web application developed by researchers is Meteoreader, which enables geospatial queries over time based on user location. It also gives access to all data provided by Meteoclimatic, the network of climate data sensor. Also in the environmental field, Ubik researchers have participated in the design of a software tool that integrates all the information on forest cover, drought and biodiversity produced by different European systems of Earth observation. This is a unique technology developed within the EuroGEOSS European project combining resources from official sources and public input and it aims to facilitate access to relevant data to improve monitoring and management of the territory.

Tuesday, 13 May 2014

This ebook gives you step by step strategy to be successful in your sport betting is not free but here you have it for zero cost Feel free to make the big time cash in your sport betting visit this link http://www.virtualsportscash.com/ebook/vscver2ty.htm for more detals.

Cash In On The Trillion Dollar Forex Market

THE CONTENTS OF THIS MANUAL REFLECT THE AUTHOR’S VIEWS ACQUIRED THROUGH HIS EXPERIENCE ON THE TOPIC UNDER DISCUSSION. THE AUTHOR OR PUBLISHER DISCLAIMS ANY PERSONAL LOSS OR LIABILITY CAUSED BY THE UTILIZATION OF ANY INFORMATION PRESENTED HEREIN. THE AUTHOR IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING ANY LEGAL OR PROFESSIONAL ADVICE. THE SERVICES OF A PROFESSIONAL PERSON ARE RECOMMENDED IF LEGAL ADV ICE OR ASSISTANCE IS NEEDED. the address has being removed and is now treated as a new topic...

Saturday, 10 May 2014

Virtual humans, programmed to feel

A clenched fist thumps the air to emphasize a point; a sweeping hand signals the array of possibilities; furrowed eyebrows question the veracity of the politician's remarks. These are all examples of the ways we express our emotions while we converse. They're strategies we may spend a lifetime learning, based on our particular cultures and backgrounds. But that doesn't mean they can't be programmed. Newly appointed Northeastern professor Stacy Marsella is doing just that. His program, called Cerebella, gives virtual humans the same ability to convey emotion through facial expressions and hand gestures as they communicate with other virtual—or even real—humans. 'Normally these virtual human architectures have some sort of perception, seeing the world, forming some understanding of it, and then deciding how to behave,' said Marsella, who holds joint appointments in the College of Computer and Information Science and the College of Science. "The trouble is some of these things are very hard to model, so sometimes you cheat." One way to cheat, Marsella explained, is to infer connections between given utterances and appropriate responses. Once the program knows what words a virtual human will use to respond, it can form a library of associated facial expressions, gaze patterns, and gestures that make sense in conjunction with those words. In one version of the program, Cerebella infers the deeper meaning behind the spoken words. The program is capable of interpreting the meaning and responding appropriately. In addition to Cerebella, Marsella's work touches on a broad spectrum of applications at the intersection of emotion and technology. For instance, UrbanSim uses similar techniques to generate large-scale models of human populations. Here, virtual models of people aren't doing the same kind of "natural language processing," as Marsella called it, but they're still interacting with one another and determining follow-up behaviors based on a theory of mind, a model that allows them to reason about how others in the virtual world will act. "They're abstract social interactions, where agents are either assisting or blocking each other," Marsella explained. The result gives his program the capacity to simulate whole cities for purposes ranging from city planning to military training. At Northeastern, Marsella is eager to apply his methods to a range of multidisciplinary collaborative projects. In particular, he's interested in working with the personal health informatics team. "The interactive health interventions are the applications that really interest me," he said. For another project, he designed a training tool for medical students to develop their patient interaction skills, in which they must navigate difficult conversations with a virtual human embedded with the emotional personality of a real human. One task requires the students to inform the virtual human of his cancer diagnosis. "We want these interactions to be natural," Marsella said, summing up the underlying goal of almost all his programs.

“Mobile Marketing Secrets Revealed"!

this ebook cost you $100 but here you have it @ zero cost and this ebook teaches you everysecrets about mobile marketing. 1.Brief history of cell phone technology 2. Overview of how cell phones relate to marketing. 3. Business models explained. 4. Case studies of applying mobile marketing to local industry. 5. Overview of the process of mobile marketing. 6. How to incorporate mobile marketing into your marketing plan. 7. Step by step procedures on how to incorporate mobile marketing into your marketing plan. 8. Sample marketing ideas for mobile marketing campaigns 9. Getting results from mobile marketing. Brief history of cell phone technology The next generation of cell phones and what it means to you! Our generation can remember a time before cell phones. During the past twenty years, technology has brought with it a unique approach to communications. Landlines are so “last century”. In fact, prior to the 1980’s there wasn’t even a term describing the concept. The word, telecommunication, was created by Texas Instruments to describe a new technology where telephones were no longer tied to a cord. Radio technology made it possible to use a telephone in a mobile environment. The entire concept evolved into mobile communications and with it came an influx of so-called smart phones. Twenty years ago, the technology was new and not available everywhere. Today’s generation enjoys much more freedom. Their “smart phones” have evolved into miniature, mobile computers capable of just about anything. You can play games, check your daily planner, surf the Internet, and send e-mail and text your friends all within the comfort and privacy of wherever you might be at the time. This evolution has happened so fast, that the generation entering the workforce today, can’t ever remember not having a cell phone and future generations will scoff at the idea that life existed without them. This is an important fact, because this is the opportunity and foundation that we are going to build on. Overview of how cell phones relate to marketing I want to focus on one specific aspect that I believe holds untold wealth for you. Since just about everyone has a cell phone today capable of sending and receiving text messages, it makes the process of contacting your target market incredibly easy. Texting has become main stream. In fact, a new language has evolved around the practice of texting and many smart phones come pre-loaded with abbreviated words in order to enhance the texting experience. Savvy marketers have recognized this and use texting to their advantage. We see it more and more in traditional advertising. The popular contest shows on television offer you ways of voting by simply texting your vote to an abbreviated code number. Many commercials offer you ways of learning more about their products by simply sending them a text message. Still other companies are staying in touch by sending you offers and coupons in a text message that is tailored specifically to you. I could go on and on about the technology behind this, but that doesn’t get us any closer to my goal of showing you how this concept can benefit your pocketbook. Suffice it to say that I will leave the “how-it-works” to the more technical writers. Instead, we are going to focus on how to take this technology and use it to make money. That is about as plain and simple as I can make it. Inorder to learn everything that this ebook teaches copy and paste this link on your web browser http://www.wisdomebooks.com/ebooks/mmsecrets.pdf feel free!!!!!!!!!!!

Saturday, 3 May 2014

Scientists create circuit board modeled on the human brain

Stanford scientists have developed faster, more energy-efficient microchips based on the human brain – 9,000 times faster and using significantly less power than a typical PC. This offers greater possibilities for advances in robotics and a new way of understanding the brain. For instance, a chip as fast and efficient as the human brain could drive prosthetic limbs with the speed and complexity of our own actions. Stanford scientists have developed a new circuit board modeled on the human brain, possibly opening up new frontiers in robotics and computing. For all their sophistication, computers pale in comparison to the brain. The modest cortex of the mouse, for instance, operates 9,000 times faster than a personal computer simulation of its functions. Not only is the PC slower, it takes 40,000 times more power to run, writes Kwabena Boahen, associate professor of bioengineering at Stanford, in an article for the Proceedings of the IEEE. "From a pure energy perspective, the brain is hard to match," says Boahen, whose article surveys how "neuromorphic" researchers in the United States and Europe are using silicon and software to build electronic systems that mimic neurons and synapses. Boahen and his team have developed Neurogrid, a circuit board consisting of 16 custom-designed "Neurocore" chips. Together these 16 chips can simulate 1 million neurons and billions of synaptic connections. The team designed these chips with power efficiency in mind. Their strategy was to enable certain synapses to share hardware circuits. The result was Neurogrid – a device about the size of an iPad that can simulate orders of magnitude more neurons and synapses than other brain mimics on the power it takes to run a tablet computer. The National Institutes of Health funded development of this million-neuron prototype with a five-year Pioneer Award. Now Boahen stands ready for the next steps – lowering costs and creating compiler software that would enable engineers and computer scientists with no knowledge of neuroscience to solve problems – such as controlling a humanoid robot – using Neurogrid Its speed and low power characteristics make Neurogrid ideal for more than just modeling the human brain. Boahen is working with other Stanford scientists to develop prosthetic limbs for paralyzed people that would be controlled by a Neurocore-like chip. "Right now, you have to know how the brain works to program one of these," said Boahen, gesturing at the $40,000 prototype board on the desk of his Stanford office. "We want to create a neurocompiler so that you would not need to know anything about synapses and neurons to able to use one of these." Brain ferment In his article, Boahen notes the larger context of neuromorphic research, including the European Union's Human Brain Project, which aims to simulate a human brain on a supercomputer. By contrast, the U.S. BRAIN Project – short for Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies – has taken a tool-building approach by challenging scientists, including many at Stanford, to develop new kinds of tools that can read out the activity of thousands or even millions of neurons in the brain as well as write in complex patterns of activity. Zooming from the big picture, Boahen's article focuses on two projects comparable to Neurogrid that attempt to model brain functions in silicon and/or software. One of these efforts is IBM's SyNAPSE Project – short for Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics. As the name implies, SyNAPSE involves a bid to redesign chips, code-named Golden Gate, to emulate the ability of neurons to make a great many synaptic connections – a feature that helps the brain solve problems on the fly. At present a Golden Gate chip consists of 256 digital neurons each equipped with 1,024 digital synaptic circuits, with IBM on track to greatly increase the numbers of neurons in the system. Heidelberg University's BrainScales project has the ambitious goal of developing analog chips to mimic the behaviors of neurons and synapses. Their HICANN chip – short for High Input Count Analog Neural Network – would be the core of a system designed to accelerate brain simulations, to enable researchers to model drug interactions that might take months to play out in a compressed time frame. At present, the HICANN system can emulate 512 neurons each equipped with 224 synaptic circuits, with a roadmap to greatly expand that hardware base. Each of these research teams has made different technical choices, such as whether to dedicate each hardware circuit to modeling a single neural element (e.g., a single synapse) or several (e.g., by activating the hardware circuit twice to model the effect of two active synapses). These choices have resulted in different trade-offs in terms of capability and performance. In his analysis, Boahen creates a single metric to account for total system cost – including the size of the chip, how many neurons it simulates and the power it consumes. Neurogrid was by far the most cost-effective way to simulate neurons, in keeping with Boahen's goal of creating a system affordable enough to be widely used in research. Speed and efficiency But much work lies ahead. Each of the current million-neuron Neurogrid circuit boards cost about $40,000. Boahen believes dramatic cost reductions are possible. Neurogrid is based on 16 Neurocores, each of which supports 65,536 neurons. Those chips were made using 15-year-old fabrication technologies. By switching to modern manufacturing processes and fabricating the chips in large volumes, he could cut a Neurocore's cost 100-fold – suggesting a million-neuron board for $400 a copy. With that cheaper hardware and compiler software to make it easy to configure, these neuromorphic systems could find numerous applications. For instance, a chip as fast and efficient as the human brain could drive prosthetic limbs with the speed and complexity of our own actions – but without being tethered to a power source. Krishna Shenoy, an electrical engineering professor at Stanford and Boahen's neighbor at the interdisciplinary Bio-X center, is developing ways of reading brain signals to understand movement. Boahen envisions a Neurocore-like chip that could be implanted in a paralyzed person's brain, interpreting those intended movements and translating them to commands for prosthetic limbs without overheating the brain. A small prosthetic arm in Boahen's lab is currently controlled by Neurogrid to execute movement commands in real time. For now it doesn't look like much, but its simple levers and joints hold hope for robotic limbs of the future. Of course, all of these neuromorphic efforts are beggared by the complexity and efficiency of the human brain. In his article, Boahen notes that Neurogrid is about 100,000 times more energy efficient than a personal computer simulation of 1 million neurons. Yet it is an energy hog compared to our biological CPU. "The human brain, with 80,000 times more neurons than Neurogrid, consumes only three times as much power," Boahen writes. "Achieving this level of energy efficiency while offering greater configurability and scale is the ultimate challenge neuromorphic engineers face."

Researcher develops method for monitoring whether private information is sufficiently protected

Tri Minh Ngo, researcher at the University of Twente, has developed a new method for monitoring whether private information is sufficiently protected in computer programs. His technology can be used to check whether private data can be leaked and, if so, how much information is actually leaked in that case. His technology can also be used to detect possible leaks. In our modern society, information is of strategic importance. Therefore, the protection of information is critical. Governments, military services, companies and banks are all dependent on the capability to protect information. If private data is stored and made accessible through a computer program, one needs to be absolutely sure this data cannot be retrieved by anyone just like that. Therefore, one has to make sure that users cannot distract any information about private data just by studying the public data. Marieke Huisman, associate professor at the University of Twente: "Consider a personnel administration system, for instance. Pay data of individual employees are obviously private; still, the number of employees is probably public. If one knows the total amount of salaries paid, one can possibly discover something on the wages of individual employees." Ngo discovered a better way to precisely formulate when a parallel program does not leak any private data. Parallelism is the capacity by a computer program to perform multiple calculations at the same time. Ngo developed an algorithm which makes it possible to verify whether concrete parallel programs do not leak any information. Leaking information cannot always be prevented and, in some instances, it may even be desirable to a certain extent. However, in case information is leaked, Ngo's algorithm can give an indication of how this information has actually been leaked. The technology even enables us to make an estimate of how much information has been leaked. Huisman: "In this way, one can make a comparison of two implementations and simply see which of the two leaks the least amount of information." Minh Tri Ngo's dissertation is entitled "Qualitative and Quantitative information flow analysis for multi-threaded programs". Ngo will obtain his doctoral degree on 17 April at the Formal Methods and Tools department of the University of Twente. Ngo performed his research under the supervision of Ms Marieke Huisman, PhD, and Professor Jaco van de Pol, PhD.

Molecular networks provide insights for computer security Apr 29, 2014

The robust defenses that yeast cells have evolved to protect themselves from environmental threats hold lessons that can be used to design computer networks and analyze how secure they are, say computer scientists at Carnegie Mellon University. Environmental "noise" is a key evolutionary pressure that shapes the interconnections within cells, as well as those of neural networks and bacterial/ecological networks, they observe in a paper to be published online April 30 by the Journal of the Royal Society Interface. The researchers factored this into an established model for the evolution of molecular connections, resulting in an algorithm that gives rise to a rich range of architectures found in biological, computer and other types of networks. Saket Navlakha, a post-doctoral researcher in CMU's Machine Learning Department, said this approach is particularly helpful in understanding how networks respond to cascading failures, whether it be an overloaded power grid or a computer network being overwhelmed by fake identities in a so-called sybil attack. The generative model the CMU team developed can be used to tailor networks to the environments in which they are expected to operate. These strike a balance between highly connected networks that are efficient and fast but are prone to infections and cascading failures, such as the Internet and its large service providers, and more sparsely connected elements that are less efficient, requiring more time to relay information, but can better tolerate failures and attacks, such as peer to peer networks. That's a balance that evolution already has achieved in yeast. A yeast cell has about 6,000 genes, of which 20 percent are considered essential—that is, if the gene is removed, the cell dies. But Ziv Bar-Joseph, an associate professor in the Machine Learning Department and the Lane Center for Computational Biology, said that view of what is essential and what isn't reflects how scientists study genes—by noting their effects on an organism when a gene is removed—not necessarily the gene's importance. "The cell did not evolve to protect itself against the deletion of these 'essential' genes," Bar-Joseph said, noting that's an event that doesn't often occur in nature. Rather, the fragility of genes, proteins and other cell components may reflect exposure to their environment. Those that lie near the cell surface, for instance, can expect to encounter lots of environmental stress, so the cell has evolved to tolerate the loss of some of them. Those involved in DNA duplication, on the other hand, normally don't experience that kind of exposure to noise and so don't have the same robust interconnections. That's why the cell dies if one of those genes is removed, Bar-Joseph noted. Just as biologists study genes by knocking them out, one by one, computer scientists Just as biologists study genes by knocking them out, one by one, computer scientists often evaluate network security by removing a server and seeing how the network responds. But Navlakha said that's not always realistic; many attacks or failures of computer and electrical networks can involve the loss of multiple, neighboring nodes. To better understand the significance of how various networks are interconnected, the Carnegie Mellon researchers, including Christos Faloutsos, professor of computer science, and Xin He, a Lane Fellow in computational biology, modified the well-known duplication-divergence model used to explain the evolution of molecular networks. The concept is that gene duplication can result in two equivalent proteins that, over time, diverge to develop specialized subtasks, while also maintaining common connections. By adjusting the duplication-divergence model to account for the pressure of environmental noise, the researchers developed a method that can be used to generate or evaluate the interconnection, or topology, of networks that work in a variety of environments. A military network, for instance, might not worry about malevolent viruses and noise because access is restricted, while a wireless sensor network deployed over a wide area might need to tolerate continual losses of random nodes. At the same time, the evolutionary role of external noise might well prove to be an insight that will enhance the understanding of biological networks, Bar-Joseph added.

Computer system automatically solves word problems

Researchers in MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, working with colleagues at the University of Washington, have developed a new computer system that can automatically solve the type of word problems common in introductory algebra classes. the near term, the work could lead to educational tools that identify errors in students' reasoning or evaluate the difficulty of word problems. But it may also point toward systems that can solve more complicated problems in geometry, physics, and finance—problems whose solutions don't appear in the back of the teacher's edition of a textbook. According to Nate Kushman, an MIT graduate student in electrical engineering and computer science and lead author on the new paper, the new work is in the field of "semantic parsing," or translating natural language into a formal language such as arithmetic or formal logic. Most previous work on semantic parsing—including his own—has focused on individual sentences, Kushman says. "In these algebra problems, you have to build these things up from many different sentences," he says. "The fact that you're looking across multiple sentences to generate this semantic representation is really something new." Kushman is joined on the paper by Regina Barzilay, a professor of computer science and engineering and one of his two thesis advisors, and by the University of Washington's Yoav Artzi and Luke Zettlemoyer. The researchers will present their work at the annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics in June.The researchers' system exploits two existing computational tools. One is the computer algebra system Macsyma, whose initial development at MIT in the 1960s was a milestone in artificial-intelligence research. For Kushman and his colleagues' purposes, Macsyma provided a way to distill algebraic equations with the same general structure into a common template.
The other tool is the type of sentence parser used in most natural-language-processing research. A parser represents the parts of speech in a given sentence and their syntactic relationships as a tree—a type of graph that, like a family-tree diagram, fans out at successive layers of depth. For the researchers' system, understanding a word problem is a matter of correctly mapping elements in the parsing diagram of its constituent sentences onto one of Macsyma's equation templates. To teach the system how to perform that mapping, and to produce the equation templates, the researchers used machine learning.Kushman found a website on which algebra students posted word problems they were having difficulty with, and where their peers could then offer solutions. From an initial group of roughly 2,000 problems, he culled 500 that represented the full range of problem types found in the larger set. In a series of experiments, the researchers would randomly select 400 of the 500 problems, use those to train their system, and then test it on the remaining 100. For the training, however, they used two different approaches—or, in the parlance of machine learning, two different types of supervision. In the first approach, they fed the system both word problems and their translations into algebraic equations—400 examples of each. But in the second, they fed the system only a few examples of the five most common types of word problems and their algebraic translations. The rest of the examples included only the word problems and their numerical solutions. In the first case, the system, after training, was able to solve roughly 70 percent of its test problems; in the second, that figure dropped to 46 percent. But according to Kushman, that's still good enough to offer hope that the researchers' approach could generalize to more complex problems. Featured performance In determining how to map natural language onto equation templates, the system examined hundreds of thousands of "features" of the training examples. Some of those features related specific words to problem types: For instance, the appearance of the phrase "react with" was a good indication that the problem dealt with chemistry. Other features looked at the location of specific words in parsing diagrams: The appearance of the word "costs" as the main verb indicated a great deal about which sentence elements should be slotted into which equation templates. Other features simply analyzed the syntactical relationships between words, regardless of the words themselves, while still others examined correlations between words' locations in different sentences. Finally, Kushman says, he included a few "sanity check" features, such as whether or not the solution yielded by a particular equation template was a positive integer, as is almost always the case with algebraic word problems. "The idea of this kind of supervision they have will be useful for lots of things," says Kevin Knight, a professor of computer science of the University of Southern California. "The approach of building a generative story of how people get from text to answers is a great idea." The system's ability to perform fairly well even when trained chiefly on raw numerical answers is "super-encouraging," Knight adds. "It needs a little help, but it can benefit from a bunch of extra data that you haven't labeled in detail."

Friday, 2 May 2014

Thanks



Thanks for your donation, your support to this blog is well appreciated....God bless you.